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施工机械雷电防护常识

 1.雷电的产(chan)生


  雷(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)自然界中(zhong)一种常(chang)(chang)见的(de)(de)(de)(de)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)现(xian)象(xiang)。关于(yu)雷(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)产生(sheng)有多种解(jie)释理(li)论,通(tong)(tong)常(chang)(chang)我(wo)们认(ren)为由于(yu)大气中(zhong)热空(kong)气上升,与高空(kong)冷空(kong)气产生(sheng)摩擦(ca),从而(er)形成了带(dai)有正(zheng)负电(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)的(de)(de)(de)(de)小水(shui)滴。当正(zheng)负电(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)累积达到(dao)一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)值时,会在(zai)带(dai)有不同极(ji)性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)云(yun)(yun)团(tuan)之间(jian)以及(ji)云(yun)(yun)团(tuan)对(dui)地之间(jian)形成强(qiang)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)场,从而(er)产生(sheng)云(yun)(yun)团(tuan)对(dui)云(yun)(yun)团(tuan)和(he)云(yun)(yun)团(tuan)对(dui)地的(de)(de)(de)(de)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)过程(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)就是(shi)通(tong)(tong)常(chang)(chang)所说(shuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)闪(shan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)和(he)响雷(lei)。具(ju)体(ti)来说(shuo),冰晶的(de)(de)(de)(de)摩擦(ca)、雨(yu)滴的(de)(de)(de)(de)破碎、水(shui)滴的(de)(de)(de)(de)冻(dong)结、云(yun)(yun)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)碰撞(zhuang)等均(jun)可(ke)使云(yun)(yun)粒(li)子起电(dian)(dian)(dian)。一般云(yun)(yun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)顶部带(dai)正(zheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian),底部带(dai)负电(dian)(dian)(dian),两种极(ji)性(xing)(xing)不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)会使云(yun)(yun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)内部或云(yun)(yun)与地之间(jian)形成强(qiang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)场,瞬间(jian)剧烈(lie)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)爆发出强(qiang)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)火花,也(ye)就是(shi)我(wo)们看到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)闪(shan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)。在(zai)闪(shan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)通(tong)(tong)道(dao)中(zhong),电(dian)(dian)(dian)流较(jiao)强(qiang),温度可(ke)骤升至2万摄氏度,气压突增,空(kong)气剧烈(lie)膨胀(zhang),人们便会听(ting)到(dao)爆炸似的(de)(de)(de)(de)声波(bo)振荡,这(zhei)(zhei)就是(shi)雷(lei)声。


  2.雷电危害的种(zhong)类


  雷(lei)(lei)击(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)危(wei)害(hai)主要有三方面:一(yi)是直(zhi)(zhi)击(ji)(ji)雷(lei)(lei)。是指雷(lei)(lei)云对大(da)(da)地(di)(di)(di)某(mou)点(dian)(dian)发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)强(qiang)(qiang)烈放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。它可以(yi)(yi)直(zhi)(zhi)接(jie)击(ji)(ji)中设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei),雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)击(ji)(ji)中架空线(xian)(xian),如电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力线(xian)(xian),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)话线(xian)(xian)等。雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)便(bian)(bian)沿(yan)着导(dao)线(xian)(xian)进入(ru)设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei),从而(er)(er)造成损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)。二是感(gan)应(ying)(ying)雷(lei)(lei)。它可以(yi)(yi)分为静电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感(gan)应(ying)(ying)及(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁感(gan)应(ying)(ying)。当带电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)雷(lei)(lei)云(一(yi)般带负电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian))出现(xian)在(zai)导(dao)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)空时,由于(yu)静电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感(gan)应(ying)(ying)作用,导(dao)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)束缚了大(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)反电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)。一(yi)旦(dan)雷(lei)(lei)云对某(mou)目标放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),雷(lei)(lei)云上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)负电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)便(bian)(bian)瞬间消(xiao)失,此(ci)时导(dao)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)正(zheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)依然(ran)存在(zai),并以(yi)(yi)雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)波的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)式沿(yan)着导(dao)线(xian)(xian)经(jing)设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)入(ru)地(di)(di)(di),引(yin)起设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)。当雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)沿(yan)着导(dao)体(ti)流(liu)入(ru)大(da)(da)地(di)(di)(di)时,由于(yu)频率高(gao),强(qiang)(qiang)度大(da)(da),在(zai)导(dao)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)附近便(bian)(bian)产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)很强(qiang)(qiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)变电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁场(chang),如果(guo)设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)在(zai)这个场(chang)中,便(bian)(bian)会(hui)感(gan)应(ying)(ying)出很高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya),以(yi)(yi)致损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)。对于(yu)灵敏(min)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei),尤需(xu)注意。第三是地(di)(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位提高(gao)。当10kA的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)通过下导(dao)体(ti)入(ru)地(di)(di)(di)时,我们假设(she)(she)(she)(she)接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻为10Ω,根据欧姆定律,我们可知(zhi)在(zai)入(ru)地(di)(di)(di)点(dian)(dian)A处电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)为100kV。因A点(dian)(dian)与(yu)B、C、D点(dian)(dian)相(xiang)连,所以(yi)(yi)这几点(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)都为100kV。而(er)(er)E点(dian)(dian)接(jie)地(di)(di)(di),其电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)值为0,设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)D点(dian)(dian)与(yu)E点(dian)(dian)间有100kV的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)差,足(zu)以(yi)(yi)将设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)。据有关统计表明:直(zhi)(zhi)击(ji)(ji)雷(lei)(lei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)仅占(zhan)15%,感(gan)应(ying)(ying)雷(lei)(lei)与(yu)地(di)(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位提高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)损(sun)坏(huai)(huai)占(zhan)85%。目前(qian),直(zhi)(zhi)击(ji)(ji)雷(lei)(lei)造成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)灾害(hai)已明显减少,而(er)(er)随着城市经(jing)济的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,感(gan)应(ying)(ying)雷(lei)(lei)和雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)波侵入(ru)造成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)危(wei)害(hai)却(que)大(da)(da)大(da)(da)增加。一(yi)般建筑物上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)避雷(lei)(lei)针只能预防(fang)直(zhi)(zhi)击(ji)(ji)雷(lei)(lei),而(er)(er)强(qiang)(qiang)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁场(chang)产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)感(gan)应(ying)(ying)雷(lei)(lei)和脉(mai)冲电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)却(que)能潜(qian)入(ru)室(shi)内(nei)危(wei)及(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)视、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)话及(ji)联(lian)网微机等弱电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)(bei)。


  3.防雷的方(fang)法和技术


  在科学技(ji)(ji)术(shu)日益发(fa)展(zhan)的今(jin)天,虽然人类不(bu)可能完全控制(zhi)暴烈的雷(lei)(lei)电,但是(shi)经过长(zhang)期的摸索与实践,已积累起很(hen)多有关(guan)防雷(lei)(lei)的知识和经验,形成一(yi)系列对防雷(lei)(lei)行之有效的方法和技(ji)(ji)术(shu)。


(1)接(jie)(jie)闪接(jie)(jie)闪就是(shi)(shi)让在一(yi)定(ding)范(fan)围内出现的(de)闪电(dian)(dian)能(neng)量按照(zhao)人们设(she)计(ji)的(de)通道泄(xie)放到大地中去(qu)。把一(yi)定(ding)保护范(fan)围的(de)闪电(dian)(dian)放电(dian)(dian)捕获(huo)到,纳入预先设(she)计(ji)的(de)对地泄(xie)放的(de)合(he)理途(tu)径之(zhi)中。避(bi)雷(lei)针是(shi)(shi)一(yi)种主动式(shi)接(jie)(jie)闪装置,其(qi)功(gong)能(neng)就是(shi)(shi)把闪电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)流引导入大地。避(bi)雷(lei)线和(he)避(bi)雷(lei)带是(shi)(shi)在避(bi)雷(lei)针基(ji)础上发(fa)展起来的(de)。采用避(bi)雷(lei)针是(shi)(shi)首要、基(ji)本的(de)防雷(lei)措(cuo)施。


(2)接(jie)地(di)接(jie)地(di)就是(shi)(shi)让已经(jing)纳入防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)系统的(de)闪电(dian)能量泄放入大地(di),良好(hao)的(de)接(jie)地(di)才能有(you)效地(di)降低引下线(xian)上的(de)电(dian)压,避(bi)免发生反击。过去有(you)些规范要求电(dian)子(zi)设(she)备单独接(jie)地(di),目的(de)是(shi)(shi)防(fang)止(zhi)电(dian)网(wang)中杂(za)散(san)电(dian)流(liu)或暂态电(dian)流(liu)干扰设(she)备的(de)正常(chang)工作。接(jie)地(di)是(shi)(shi)防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)系统中基础的(de)环节(jie)。接(jie)地(di)不(bu)好(hao),所(suo)有(you)防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)措施的(de)防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)效果(guo)都不(bu)能发挥出来(lai)。防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)接(jie)地(di)是(shi)(shi)防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)设(she)施安(an)装验收规范中基本的(de)要求。


(3)均压连接(jie)(jie)接(jie)(jie)闪(shan)(shan)装置在(zai)(zai)捕(bu)获雷电(dian)(dian)时,引(yin)下(xia)线(xian)立即(ji)升(sheng)(sheng)至高(gao)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei),会对(dui)防(fang)雷系(xi)统(tong)周围的(de)(de)尚处于地(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)导体产生(sheng)旁侧闪(shan)(shan)络(luo),并使其电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao),进而对(dui)人员和(he)设(she)备(bei)构成(cheng)危害(hai)。为了减少(shao)这(zhei)(zhei)种闪(shan)(shan)络(luo)危险,简单(dan)的(de)(de)办(ban)法是采用(yong)均压环,将(jiang)处于地(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)导体等(deng)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)连接(jie)(jie)起来,一直到接(jie)(jie)地(di)(di)装置。金属(shu)设(she)施、电(dian)(dian)气(qi)装置和(he)电(dian)(dian)子(zi)设(she)备(bei),如果(guo)其与(yu)(yu)防(fang)雷系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)导体,特别是接(jie)(jie)闪(shan)(shan)装置的(de)(de)距离达(da)不(bu)到规定(ding)的(de)(de)要(yao)求时,则应该(gai)用(yong)较粗(cu)的(de)(de)导线(xian)把它们与(yu)(yu)防(fang)雷系(xi)统(tong)进行等(deng)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)连接(jie)(jie)。这(zhei)(zhei)样在(zai)(zai)闪(shan)(shan)电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)流通(tong)过时,所有设(she)施立即(ji)形成(cheng)一个(ge)“等(deng)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)岛”,保证(zheng)导电(dian)(dian)部件(jian)之(zhi)间不(bu)产生(sheng)有害(hai)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)差,不(bu)发生(sheng)旁侧闪(shan)(shan)络(luo)放电(dian)(dian)。完善的(de)(de)等(deng)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)连接(jie)(jie)还可以防(fang)止闪(shan)(shan)电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)流入地(di)(di)造(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)地(di)(di)电(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)所产生(sheng)的(de)(de)反击。


(4)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)就是在(zai)(zai)一(yi)切从室(shi)外来的(de)(de)(de)导线(xian)(xian)与接地(di)线(xian)(xian)之间并联一(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)适当(dang)(dang)的(de)(de)(de)避雷(lei)(lei)器。当(dang)(dang)直接雷(lei)(lei)或(huo)感应雷(lei)(lei)在(zai)(zai)线(xian)(xian)路(lu)上产生的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)电压(ya)波沿着这(zhei)些导线(xian)(xian)进入室(shi)内或(huo)设(she)(she)备时(shi),避雷(lei)(lei)器的(de)(de)(de)电阻突(tu)然降(jiang)到低值,近于(yu)(yu)短路(lu)状态,将闪(shan)电电流(liu)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)入地(di)。分(fen)(fen)流(liu)是现代防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)技术(shu)中迅猛发展,是防(fang)护(hu)各种(zhong)(zhong)电气(qi)电子(zi)设(she)(she)备的(de)(de)(de)关键措(cuo)施。由于(yu)(yu)雷(lei)(lei)电流(liu)在(zai)(zai)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)之后,仍(reng)会有少部分(fen)(fen)沿导线(xian)(xian)进入设(she)(she)备,这(zhei)对于(yu)(yu)不耐高压(ya)的(de)(de)(de)微电子(zi)设(she)(she)备来说仍(reng)是很危险的(de)(de)(de),所以对于(yu)(yu)这(zhei)类(lei)设(she)(she)备在(zai)(zai)导线(xian)(xian)进入机壳前应进行多(duo)级(ji)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)。采用(yong)分(fen)(fen)流(liu)这(zhei)一(yi)防(fang)雷(lei)(lei)措(cuo)施时(shi),应特别注意避雷(lei)(lei)器性能(neng)参数的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)择,因(yin)为附加设(she)(she)施的(de)(de)(de)安装或(huo)多(duo)或(huo)少地(di)会影响系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)性能(neng)。


(5)屏蔽屏蔽就(jiu)是用金属网(wang)、箔、壳、管等导体把需要保(bao)护的(de)(de)对象包围(wei)起来,阻隔闪电的(de)(de)脉(mai)冲电磁(ci)场(chang)从空间(jian)入侵的(de)(de)通道(dao)。屏蔽是防止雷电电磁(ci)脉(mai)冲辐射对电子设备影响的(de)(de)有效方法。


4.雷电对施工(gong)机(ji)械的(de)危(wei)害(hai)及预防


  公路(lu)(lu)施工(gong)作业处(chu)在露天环境下进行。施工(gong)机(ji)械(xie)的(de)电(dian)(dian)气(qi)控(kong)制系统特别是微(wei)电(dian)(dian)子(zi)控(kong)制装置受雷电(dian)(dian)直击(ji)(ji)(ji)或雷电(dian)(dian)感应(ying)过电(dian)(dian)压损害的(de)几率很大。京珠(zhu)高(gao)速(su)公路(lu)(lu)清远段地处(chu)石(shi)灰岩山区,在雷雨季(ji)节是雷电(dian)(dian)袭击(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)高(gao)发(fa)地区,每当天空中乌云密(mi)布大雨来临(lin)时(shi),雷电(dian)(dian)往往会(hui)对施工(gong)机(ji)械(xie)进行正(zheng)面(mian)的(de)袭击(ji)(ji)(ji);而有时(shi)即使在天空中没(mei)有雨云又(you)不下雨的(de)情况下,感应(ying)雷也(ye)会(hui)时(shi)有发(fa)生(sheng),其产生(sheng)的(de)浪涌(yong)电(dian)(dian)压入(ru)侵(qin)并损坏路(lu)(lu)面(mian)摊(tan)铺机(ji)的(de)微(wei)电(dian)(dian)控(kong)制装置,为此,防雷工(gong)作势在必行。


  (1)在(zai)沥青混(hun)合(he)(he)料揽拌厂场(chang)安装(zhuang)避雷(lei)针装(zhuang)置由(you)于沥青混(hun)合(he)(he)料搅拌设(she)备(bei)及(ji)(ji)其(qi)配套机械集(ji)中(zhong)在(zai)一个生(sheng)产厂场(chang)使(shi)用,比(bi)较容易进(jin)行集(ji)中(zhong)防雷(lei),为(wei)此(ci),在(zai)拌和厂场(chang)安装(zhuang)避雷(lei)针。避雷(lei)针的(de)(de)高度高于搅拌楼的(de)(de)较高点(dian),达到有效的(de)(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)护半径,防止(zhi)雷(lei)电(dian)对任(ren)何(he)一台作(zuo)(zuo)业机械直击(ji)。避雷(lei)针接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)要(yao)可(ke)靠,由(you)于石灰岩山区的(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)土壤(rang)比(bi)较干硬,土壤(rang)电(dian)阻值过大,所以接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)网(wang)的(de)(de)埋设(she)与广珠(zhu)东线的(de)(de)做法(fa)不(bu)尽相(xiang)同。接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)网(wang)的(de)(de)角钢桩点(dian)埋设(she)土坑要(yao)求1.0m深(shen)左右,角钢在(zai)土坑内(nei)要(yao)露出500px左右,在(zai)土坑内(nei)按比(bi)例填满木(mu)(mu)(mu)炭(tan)(tan)和颗(ke)粒(li)生(sheng)盐作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)降阻介质(zhi),生(sheng)盐与木(mu)(mu)(mu)炭(tan)(tan)的(de)(de)重量比(bi)例为(wei)1:10,即1kg生(sheng)盐掺合(he)(he)10kg木(mu)(mu)(mu)炭(tan)(tan),然后填土复盖(gai)。这样可(ke)以确保(bao)(bao)(bao)接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)电(dian)阻值在(zai)4以下(xia)。当雷(lei)电(dian)袭击(ji)时由(you)避雷(lei)针及(ji)(ji)其(qi)引线经过接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)网(wang)迅速将强大的(de)(de)雷(lei)电(dian)电(dian)流引入大地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),防止(zhi)雷(lei)电(dian)对机电(dian)系统的(de)(de)直击(ji)。此(ci)外,还对沥青混(hun)合(he)(he)料搅拌操作(zuo)(zuo)控制室进(jin)行屏蔽,做法(fa)是将操作(zuo)(zuo)室内(nei)微电(dian)子(zi)控制系统的(de)(de)工作(zuo)(zuo)接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、保(bao)(bao)(bao)护接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)与金(jin)属结构的(de)(de)控制室外壳用导体连接(jie)在(zai)一起,再(zai)通过接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)引线引入地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)下(xia)接(jie)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)网(wang),使(shi)它(ta)们保(bao)(bao)(bao)持相(xiang)等(deng)的(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)电(dian)位,预防静电(dian)及(ji)(ji)雷(lei)电(dian)。


  (2)对路面(mian)(mian)摊铺机械(xie)(xie)电气控制(zhi)装置装设(she)过(guo)电压保(bao)护器(qi)由于路面(mian)(mian)摊铺机械(xie)(xie)是随时移动(dong)作业(ye)的(de),不(bu)可能集中避雷(lei),而处在露天环境(jing)下的(de)移动(dong)机械(xie)(xie)电气控制(zhi)装置易受感应(ying)雷(lei)浪涌电压的(de)入侵,例(li)如沥青(qing)沥青(qing)摊铺机控制(zhi)路面(mian)(mian)平整(zheng)度和(he)控制(zhi)机械(xie)(xie)定(ding)位的(de)压力传(chuan)感器(qi)等(deng)就深(shen)受其害。


  为了保(bao)护这(zhei)些(xie)控(kong)制灵敏度较(jiao)高的(de)机械微电(dian)子控(kong)制装(zhuang)(zhuang)置免遭感(gan)应雷浪涌(yong)电(dian)压入侵损毁,根据每(mei)台机械控(kong)制装(zhuang)(zhuang)置的(de)不(bu)同构造特点(dian),对其装(zhuang)(zhuang)设(she)过电(dian)压保(bao)护器。


  5.结束(shu)语


  雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灾害(hai)(hai)对(dui)机械电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气(qi)控制装置特(te)别是微(wei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子装置的(de)(de)侵害(hai)(hai)是一(yi)种常(chang)见的(de)(de)自然灾害(hai)(hai),为避(bi)免雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)对(dui)其(qi)侵害(hai)(hai),应(ying)(ying)根据机械电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气(qi)控制设(she)(she)备的(de)(de)不同构造(zao)特(te)点而采(cai)用不同的(de)(de)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)方法(fa)。只要合理地选用防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)设(she)(she)备,应(ying)(ying)定期(qi)(qi)由**防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)公司检(jian)测(ce)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)设(she)(she)施,评估防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)设(she)(she)施是否符(fu)合国家规范(fan)要求,施工(gong)(gong)项目应(ying)(ying)设(she)(she)立防(fang)(fang)范(fan)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灾害(hai)(hai)责任人,负(fu)责防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)工(gong)(gong)作,建(jian)(jian)立各项防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)工(gong)(gong)作,建(jian)(jian)立各项防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)设(she)(she)施的(de)(de)定期(qi)(qi)检(jian)测(ce),雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)雨后的(de)(de)检(jian)查和(he)日常(chang)的(de)(de)维护。施工(gong)(gong)单(dan)位在防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)设(she)(she)施的(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)和(he)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)时,应(ying)(ying)根据地质、土(tu)壤、气(qi)象、环境、被(bei)保护物(wu)的(de)(de)特(te)点,雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)活动(dong)规律(lv)等因素综合考虑,采(cai)用可靠、技(ji)术先(xian)进、经济合理的(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)施工(gong)(gong)。就会大大降低雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灾害(hai)(hai)带(dai)来的(de)(de)损失。


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